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Castigophobia, or poenaphobia, is a fear of punishment. The fear is commonly encountered in children who get punished frequently by parents or other adults. People observing cruel actions in others or warnings received can cause fear. Sufferers may feel anxious when he/she makes a mistake, and usually even a minor mistake fears the worst.
Usually therapists may be needed to treat castigophobia, specifically by teaching sufferers that everyone make mistakes because no one is perfect.
A branch of poinephobia commonly suffered by adults is Carcerophobia, the fear of going to prison.